PRUSIAS & HYPIUM
Category: Ancient City
PRUSIAS & HYPIUM
Ancient Bithynian City
Prusias ad Hypium (Προῦσα πρὸς τῷ Ὑππίῳ ποταμῷ) was a city in ancient Bithynia, and afterwards in the late Roman province of Honorias. In the 4th century it became a bishopric that was a suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honoriade. Before its conquest by King Prusias I of Bithynia, it was named Cierus or Kieros. Photius writes that it was called Kieros, after the river which flows by it.
The site is near Konuralp, 8 km (5.0 mi) north of Düzce on the road to Akçakoca, in northwestern Turkey
The settlement, initially named "Hypios", was later renamed "Kieros".According to Ancient Greek historical writer Memnon of Heraclea , King Prusias I of Bithynia (Reignİ 228 – 182 BC) captured the town of Kieros from the Heracleans, united it to his dominions, and changed its name to "Prusias". Pliny and Ptolemy merely mention it, one placing it at the foot of Mt. Hypius, the other east of the river Hypius. It was an important city on the road between Nicomedia (modern İzmit) at Propontis and Amastris (Modern Amasra) at Euxine in the Pontus region
The outer wall of the stage building ( scaenae frons). The amphitheatre, which is locally called "The Forty Stairs", was built in the city center during the Hellenistic period (300-30 BC) and was expanded in the Roman period (30 BC-300 AD). Part of the outer wall of the stage building ( scaenae frons) still stands.
In about 74 AD, control of the region, and so of the city, was taken by the Roman Empire. From then on, the city was called "Prusias ad Hypium". The city grew from four to twelve phylai during the Roman period until the 2nd century. Three Roman emperors, Hadrian (r. 117–138), Caracalla (r. 198–217), and Elagabalus (r. 218–222), visited the city in northwestern Asia Minor. Already after the reign of Vespasian (r. 69–79), the city became autonomous in internal affairs and minted its own coins, though it remained dependent to Rome in foreign policy. In the beginning of the 5th century, the city became part of the newly established late Roman province of Honorias, and after 451 AD, it lost its wealth towards the end of the Byzantine period
In 1323, the city was conquered from the Byzantine Empire by Osman Ghazi (r. c. 1299 – 1323/4), the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Osman Ghazi handed over the city's control to his commander Konur Alp Bey. In the Ottoman period, the city center was abandoned, and the settlement was called "Üskübü" from σκοπή (skopi) meaning "watchtower". During the Ottoman period, Islamic culture became prevalent.
With the beginning of the Republican era (after 1923), the town's name was changed to "Konuralp". The name "Üskübü" is still used among the inhabitants
Garland sarcophagus in the Konuralp Museum, Turkey
The fact that the city is on the river bank indicates that sea transportation was carried out by river in Prusias. According to the archaeological data, river transportation in Anatolia started in BC. It dates back to the 4th millennium. Many important ports and port cities were located at the mouths of rivers in order to provide faster and easier access to the inner regions in the Ancient Age.
Although it is not a port city and is inland from the sea, the Prusiaskent on the shore of Hypios, as the name suggests, has benefited from the natural advantages of the river that flows into Pontos Euxeinos in Melenağzı and is used for transportation. So much so that Mithridates, King of Pontos, managed to escape from the storm by sheltering here and spent the winter here.
One of the most important indicators of river transportation is coins. On the Prusias ad Hypium coins, it was first taken to the market place of the city on the edge of Melen and then by a merchant from Prusias.
The logs thought to have been floated to the Black Sea are represented by a branch. On the coins shapes of trade ships and depictions of river god are seen.
Laureate head of Apollo right. Prow of war galley left, ornamented with star; behind; ΚΙΑΝΑ
Laureate head of Apollo right; KIA below. Prow of war galley left, ornamented with star; corn-grain behind;