EXODUS OF JEWS FROM SPAIN
OTTOMAN EMPIRE-A SAFE HEAVEN FOR JEWS
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile made Spain into a single country with their marriage, as the Jews were exiled from the country to empower their union on March 31,1492. On January 2, 1492, the Catholic royal powerhouse Queen Isabel of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon finally conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold of Spain, ending the 700 years of Moorish rule in the Iberian Peninsula. For the remaining Moors and Jews who wanted to stay in Spain, they were ordered to abandon their faith and mosques were being converted into Christian churches.
According to the Alhambra enactment issued against Jews, all Jews were ordered to either change religion or leave the country in six months. There were a few people who did not want to leave Spain and changed religions. Even if they changed religions, they were tracked closely. "After this tracking process, inquisition courts were established, and according to resources, more than 13,000 people were executed,"
1492 is also the year when Columbus started hi sail for Americas. Her wrote in his diary:
"In the same month in which their Majesties [Ferdinand and Isabella] issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out of the kingdom and its territories, in the same month they gave me the order to undertake with sufficient men my expedition of discovery to the Indies."
Many jews who were trying to immigrate by various ships were slaughtered by the pirates while trying to steal their belongings and jeweleries which the Jews suppossed to have. But the ones who were taken from Spain by the ships that were sent by Ottoman Sultan, survived and reach to their safe heaven where they would live for centuries in peace. They all survived, because, for the pirates, to mass with an Ottoman Naval ship and attack to it was a great challenge which has to be thought twice.
In July 1492, Spanish Inquisition expelled its Jewish and Muslim populations. As a response, the Caliph of Muslim World and the Sultan of Ottoman Empire, Sultan Bayezid II, sent out the Ottoman Navy under the command of Admiral Kemal Reis (Reis means captain in Turkish) to Spain in order to evacuate the jews safely to Ottoman lands. More than 150,000 Jewish refugees had sought refuge with the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan had sent out Imperial Edicts throughout the Empire that the refugees were to be accepted & welcomed.
In his proclamation, the Sultan mentioned that told it was God’s command to take care of the descendants of the Prophets Abraham and Jacob. They should come and settle in Istanbul and live in peace in the shade of the fig tree where they could engage in free trade and own property.
Sultan Bayezid issued a proclemation to all the governors of European provinces under Ottoman rule, and ordered them not only to refrain the Sephardic Jew refugees, but to give them a friendly and welcome reception. He threatened all those who treated the Jews harshly or refused them admission into the Empire.
The Sultan, by his words, ridiculed the conduct of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I, of Castilian for expelling an entire class of people as below.
“You venture to call Ferdinand a wise ruler, he who has impoverished his own country and enriched mine!”
The fall of Al-Andalus is seen as one of the most tragic events in Islamic history. At the height of the Moorish Empire, the Iberian Peninsula had a population of over 5 million Muslims. The Moors created an advanced civilization based on faith knowledge, tolerance, technology, scientific discoveries, and creativity. The capital of Muslim Spain – Córdoba – boasted paved roads, hospitals, streetlights, and Europe’s first universities. While Europe’s largest Christian library contained 600 books, Moorish calligraphers in Córdoba were producing 6000 books per year. Al-Andalus was seen as a fusion of North African, European where Muslims, Jews, and Christians lived in relative peace and prosperity together.
Over the next hundred years, many Moriscos were able to conceal the practice of Islam but still often suffered from harassment, looting, and kidnapping. By 1609 King Philip of Spain (the great grandson of Isabel and Fernando) signed an edict finally expelling all Moriscos from Spain. The Moriscos were given only three days to pack up all their belongings and leave for North Africa or the Ottoman Empire.
By 1614 all Moriscos and Marranos were expelled from Spain; Islam and Judaism were entirely eradicated from the Iberian Peninsula. It’s believed that the population of Muslims in Spain decreased from 500,000 to 0 within 100 years and has been described as one of the greatest acts of genocide.
BREVE EN ESPAÑOL / Traducido por Ezequiel Martin De santiago
Fernando de Aragón e Isabel de Castilla convirtieron a España en un solo país con su matrimonio, ya que los judíos fueron exiliados del país para potenciar su unión el 31 de marzo de 1942. El 2 de enero de 1492, la potencia real católica, la reina Isabel de Castilla y el rey Fernando de Aragón, finalmente conquistaron Granada, el último bastión musulmán de España, poniendo fin a los 700 años de dominio árabe en la Península Ibérica. Para los moros y judíos restantes que querían quedarse en España, se les ordenó abandonar su fe y las mezquitas se estaban convirtiendo en iglesias cristianas.
Según la promulgación de la Alhambra emitida contra los judíos, a todos los judíos se les ordenó cambiar de religión o abandonar el país en seis meses. Hubo algunas personas que no quisieron abandonar España y cambiaron de religión. Incluso si cambiaron de religión, fueron seguidos de cerca. "Después de este proceso de seguimiento, se establecieron tribunales de inquisición y, según los recursos, más de 13,000 personas fueron ejecutadas".
1492 es también el año en que Colón comenzó a navegar hacia América. Ella escribió en su diario:
"En el mismo mes en que sus Majestades [Fernando e Isabel] emitieron el edicto de que todos los judíos deberían ser expulsados del reino y sus territorios, en el mismo mes me dieron la orden de emprender con suficientes hombres mi expedición de descubrimiento para las Indias ".
Muchos judíos que intentaban inmigrar en varios barcos fueron asesinados por los piratas mientras intentaban robar sus pertenencias y joyerías que los judíos suponían tener. Pero los que fueron llevados desde España por los barcos que fueron enviados por el sultán otomano, sobrevivieron y llegaron a su cielo seguro donde vivirían durante siglos en paz. Todos sobrevivieron porque, para los piratas, la masa con un barco naval otomano y atacarlo fue un gran desafío que debe pensarse dos veces.