Édouard Detaille, in full Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Detaille, (born October 5, 1848, Paris, France—died December 23, 1912, Paris), French painter known for his accurate portrayals of battles and military life.
Detaille studied with Ernest Meissonier and employed a technique of literal exactitude based on that of his teacher. Detaille developed a wide knowledge of military detail, which made his work an important source for the study of late-19th-century military history; e.g., in 1883 he produced, with Alphonse de Neuville, a profusely illustrated two-volume work, The French Army. His paintings of the Franco-German War (e.g., The Defense of Champigny, 1879) made him famous. His most characteristic works, however, infused with legend and sentiment, are his pictures of Napoleon I and his armies. Detaille also painted some portraits and nonmilitary subjects and was a gifted actor.