maın characters of dardanelles & gallıpolı campaıgn
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (born November 30, 1874, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England—died January 24, 1965, London), British statesman, orator, and author who as prime minister (1940–45, 1951–55).
He joined the British Army, in 1893. In 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, in what was the Indian Empire (British India). He fought in what is now Pakistan. After this, he fought in a war in Sudan, in 1898 as an officer in the cavalry. In 1899, he went to the Second Boer War in South Africa, to be a newspaper reporter. He was captured by the Boers, but managed to escape.
In 1900, he became a politician in the Conservative Party, and was elected to Parliament. In 1904, he changed parties and joined the Liberal Party, but later returned to the Conservative Party.
In 1910 Churchill became Home Secretary, one of the most important members of the government. In 1911 he was made First Lord of the Admiralty, which put him in charge of the Royal Navy. When World War I broke out, he stayed in that job. He organized an invasion in Gallipoli which went wrong, and because of this, he was made to leave the government. He joined the army and was sent to fight in France, although he was still a Member of Parliament. In 1917 he was made minister in charge of military supplies (Minister of Munitions).
After World War I, in 1919, Churchill was made Secretary of State for War, In 1921 he was in charge of the colonies as Secretary of State. When Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, Churchill warned that Britain should strengthen its military and oppose Hitler. However, very few leaders agreed with him. At the start of World War II, Churchill was again put in charge of the Navy. In 1940 the war was going badly for Britain. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigned on May 10 and Churchill was given the job.
In 1945, his Conservative party lost an election, and he stopped being Prime Minister. However, he became Prime Minister again in 1951, which he was until 1955.
He was knighted in 1953, and became Sir Winston, and also won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In 1955, he retired from being Prime Minister. In 1964, he retired from Parliament.
David Lloyd George
He was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician. He was the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
As Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908–1915) during H. H. Asquith's tenure as Prime Minister, Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of many reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state. His most important role came as the highly energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government (1916–22), during and immediately after the First World War. He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers. Although he remained Prime Minister after the 1918 general election, the Conservatives were the largest party in the coalition, with the Liberals split between those loyal to Lloyd George, and those still supporting Asquith. He became the leader of the Liberal Party in the late 1920s, but it grew even smaller and more divided. By the 1930s he was a marginalised and widely mistrusted figure. He gave weak support to the war effort during the Second World War amidst fears that he was favourable toward Germany.
He was voted the third-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by the market-research company MORI, and was named among the 100 Greatest Britons in a UK-wide vote in 2002
Lord Horatio Kitchener (1850 - 1916)
Kitchener was a British military leader and statesman who, as secretary of state for war in the first years of World War One, organised armies on an unprecedented scale.
He was educated in Switzerland and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. In 1871, he joined in the Royal Engineers. He took part in the unsuccessful operation to relieve General Charles Gordon at Khartoum in 1884-1885, and in 1886 was appointed governor general of eastern Sudan. Six years later served he became commander in chief of the Egyptian army. In 1896, he began the reconquest of Sudan from the forces of al-Mahdi, culminating in the Battle of Omdurman and the reoccupation of Khartoum in 1898. Kitchener was then made governor of Sudan, having become a national hero.
In 1911, he became the proconsul of Egypt, serving there and in the Sudan until 1914. When war broke out, Kitchener reluctantly accepted the appointment of secretary of state for war. Unlike many in government and the military, he foresaw a war lasting for years, and planned accordingly. He rapidly enlisted and trained huge numbers of volunteers for a succession of entirely new 'Kitchener armies'.
But his cabinet colleagues did not share the public worship of Kitchener and he was gradually relieved of his responsibilities. His support for the disastrous Dardanelles operation, combined with the 'shell crisis' of 1915, eroded his reputation further. Sent on a mission to Russia in June 1916, he drowned on 5 June when his ship, HMS Hampshire was sunk by a German mine off the Orkneys.
Sir Ian Hamilton (British general)
Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton, (born January 16, 1853, Corfu, Ionian Islands [Greece]—died October 12, 1947, London, England),
British general, commander in chief of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in the unsuccessful campaign against Turkey in the Gallipoli Peninsula during World War I.
On March 12, 1915, Hamilton was placed in charge of the expeditionary force intended to seize control of the Dardanelles Strait and to capture Constantinople. It was to be the greatest test of his career, and as a commander he failed. During the next six months he conducted operations against the Turks at Gallipoli but suffered heavy casualties and made little headway. He remained unrealistically optimistic, and, when the British cabinet had begun to favour the evacuation of his force, he inopportunely reiterated his belief in the ultimate success of the campaign. He was recalled on October 16, 1915, and was given no further command. Hamilton was an exceptionally gifted officer of great personal courage, but he had spent nearly half of his career in administrative staff positions, and he was perhaps unprepared for an operation as complex as the Gallipoli Campaign.
Otto Liman von Sanders
Otto Liman von Sanders (1855-1929), a German officer who was responsible for transforming the efficiency of the Ottoman army in the months prior to World War One.
He began his military career in 1874. Rising to the rank of Lieutenant General he served in numerous staff and divisional commands before being appointed director of a German military mission to Turkey in 1913 intended to reorganise the army of the Ottoman Empire.
His appointment brought a storm of protest from Russia, who suspected German designs on the Ottoman capital. A compromise arrangement was subsequently agreed whereby Liman was appointed to the rather less senior and less influential position of Inspector General in January 1914. He attempted to persuade the Turkish government topursue a military alliance with the Central Powers shortly after his appointment. His inability to bring about immediate Turkish entrance to the war in August 1914 dismayed both him and his native government.
In August 1914 Liman accepted command of the Turkish First Army in the Bosporus. The following March he was placed at the head of the Fifth Army sited at Gallipoli.
Despite ensuing widespread popularity back home in Germany his influence remained minimal on Turks. He wasn't successfull in his attempts to prevent the so-called Armenian massacres or to persuade War Minister Enver Pasha to cease military operations in the Caucasus in 1916.
On1918 he comes in command of a Turkish-German force on the Palestine Front. He was however swamped by Edmund Allenby's much larger British force in the September 1918 in Battle of Megiddo.
Following the armistice he returned to Constantinople to oversee the repatriation of German forces. He was arrested by the British because of war crimes in 1919 but released a couple of months later. Than he retired.
He died on 22 August 1929 in Munich at the age of 74.