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Ancient Cilician City -page 3

Small (Harbour) Bath

The Small Bath, built on a flat area near the beach in the north of the ancient city, consists of 6 different rooms. This bath, which is smaller in size compared to other baths in Anemurium, has the plan features of the “Row Type (Reihentyp) Bath” group. The main rooms of the bath are listed from south to north as apodyterium (changing room), frigidarium (cold room), tepidarium (warmness room), caldarium (hottest room) and praefurnium (furnace). There is a floor mosaic covering an area of ​​approximately 60 m2 in the changing room. In the center of the mosaic, there is a 4-line inscription in Greek with words honoring Mouseos who made this mosaic.  According to the researches, the building must have been built in the 5th century AD. However, in the last phase, like many ruins in the city, it was transformed into a building used for commercial/industrial purposes other than its main function, and it was completely abandoned in AD 660.


Click on the pic. to zoom in


The Anemurium Acropolis is located at the southern end of the ancient city on a steep and hilly terrain with a very high peak protruding towards the sea, today called the “Cape Anamur”. The peak of the acropolis is approximately 149 m high and covers an area of ​​73.000 m2 of the ancient city. Especially the north and east sides are surrounded by city walls and towers. The city walls were extensively repaired in the Middle Age. In addition, the remains of the fortification wall, which probably dates back to the Hellenistic Period, were found at the eastern end of the fortification wall, which was greatly repaired in the Middle Age. Although the remains in question bear the characteristics of the earliest architectural remains that the ancient city of Anamurium has so far, it also indicates that the settlement chronology of the city may go back to earlier



On the slopes of the mountain that borders the city to the west, there is the Anemurium Necropolis, which contains many types of tombs and covers a very large area, ​​approximately 101.000 m2 from south to north. This is one of the largest and richest necropolises of the Cilicia Region and is among the best preserved examples of Roman Period cemeteries in Anatolia. There are about 350 tombs in the necropolis built between the centuries AD 1st-4th. So much so that, the cemetery area, which was initially in a narrow area, has spread further

north beyond the valley in AD 2nd-3rd centuries. These innovations have also been associated with the enrichment of the city and the increase of the population. Examples of Barrel Vaulted Tomb, Baldachin/Mausoleum Type Tomb, Truncated Conical Type Tomb, Exedra/Aedicule Type Tomb, and Domed Type Tomb are seen among these graves.

                 Anemurium Necropolis            


Holy Apostles Church

It is one of the structures built closest to the beach in the city. It measures 41 x 19 m. Unfortunately, the church has been destroyed to a great extent, and only underpinnings have survived to this day. The most important feature that distinguishes this church from other churches in the city is the presence of an atrium (courtyard) in it. Apart from that, it was built in an east-west direction in a basilical plan with its three naves, narthex and pastophorion rooms. The entrance to the church was probably from the west. The floor of the church is covered with mosaics. On the mosaic in the Narthex, it is mentioned that the church was rebuilt or repaired by the beloved friends of the Holy Aposteles. The church must have been built in the first quarter of the 5th century AD.







5-Kültürel Miras Araştırmaları– 2021; 2(1); 01-15, Mehmet Tekocak, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü

6-Anemurium Odeonu Üzerine Yeni Bir Değerlendirme.  Seşçuk Üniversity, archaeology, Faculty Member

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